English Learning Methods
Mostly the methods that developed by some past centuries still be used in some parts of the world though with the form and name which is different each other depended on the local situation and condition. According Muljanto Sumardi in his book Pengajaran Bahasa Asing (Jakarta; Bulan Bintang, 1975, page 32-40) that William Francis Mackey notes there are 15 kinds of language teaching methods which used during the time, they are:
- Direct Method
Among so many methods, Direct Method is the most generating difference idea. It's called Direct Method because during the teaching process the teacher using the foreign language or English according to the items taught directly, while the student's language as possible may not be used. To explain a sentence or word used by a physic appliance or through an action.
- Natural Method
In general term this method showing a lot of similarity with Direct Method. According to this method, pupil's language is not permitted to be used. This method called as natural because in course of learning, the student brought into as does he learn mother tongue.
- Psychological Method
There is a connection of this method with Direct Method. This method is based on the psycho perception and mind association.
- Phonetic Method
This method is recognized with the oral dank method, because assumed by a completion effort from direct method; it's called Reform Method too. According to this method, the lesson starts with the listen practice, then followed with saying practice in advance, after that word, then the sentences stringed up to become a conversation or story. It's named Phonetic Method because the lesson emphasized at phonetic notation. The grammar taught inductively, charcoal lesson consist of the appearance of what heard and read.
- Grammatical Method
The distinctive feature of this method is the memorization of grammatical roles and a number of selected words. Then these words related according to the grammatical that applying, so this activity is the practice of grammatical applying.
- Reading Method
This method is destined for schools with aim to teach reading deftness of foreign language. The lesson items consist of reading materials that divided into short sections, but every part or this section was preceded with glossary which the meaning taught through sentence, pictures or translation.
- Translation Method
This method focused at activities which in the form of translating reading materials, originally from foreign language to pupil language then from pupil language to foreign language according to the language that studied, that is English.
- Grammar Translation Method
This method is combination of grammatical method and translation method. It means the grammar taught in advance later then translating lesson. Because this method has been long enough used in English lesson, this method also called Classical Method.
- Eclectic Method
This method using the combination of elements which found in Direct Method and Grammar Translation Method, the deftness of have language taught following the speak sequence, writing, comprehending and reading.
- Unit Method
This method is the implementation of teaching system according to Herbert which based on the attention of student with stages:
a. One interesting topic or title which selected by student group then prepare to be dialogued into student language, than translated into foreign language that taught by instructor which emphasized at the one of grammatical aspect.
b. From other paper sheet, the student learns the meaning of words which used in situation that selected.
c. After that listed of grammatical or sentence which containing the grammatical aspect, then repeated and learned by heart.
- Language Control Method
This method is the way of teaching based on words selection and sentence structure from often or not the usage or usefulness of it.
- Mimicry memorization Method
According to this method, learning activity is the practices and demonstration of grammatical drill and sentence structure. Uttering and using vocabulary practices follow or imitate the teacher utterance and informant.
- Practice Theory Method
In this method which majored in advance is practice, later then theory. It's usually by comparison of seven units of practices and three units of theories.
- Cognate Method
In this method, the pupil learns the basic words which consisting of similar words with the language words both in the form and meaning. Then these words used to express mind and feeling both in oral form and article.
- Dual-Language Method
This Method has resemblence with the Cognate Method above that is based on analogical and difference between both languages, in this case on the basis of comparison of pupil language and foreign language which studied. But the comparison is not limited to words only, but also sound system and grammatical system of both languages. The pupil language used as a means to explain the differences of phonetic, syntax, and vocabulary between both. Every existing difference is made of lesson focus and drill.
Of so many mentioned methods above, creativity, sensitivity and also teachers' ability is claimed to be able to determine or choose which method is correct to be used. Election of this method relates to demand of Language learning in every school.