Direct Method

There are so many definitions and the other name of Direct Method.  Also known as Reform Method/Natural Method/Phonetical Method/Anti-Grammatical Method.
Direct method is a way in presenting lesson items of foreign language where the teacher use that foreign language directly as medium of instruction and without using even little the pupils' language in teaching, if there is a word which is difficult to be understood by pupils, so the teacher can explain it by using physic appliance, demonstrating, illustrating and the others.[1]

Among so many methods, the Direct Method is the most known and generating many different ideas. It is called as Direct Method because during the lesson happened, the teacher use the foreign language which taught, while pupils' language may not be used.
So it can be pulled conclusion that Direct Method is a way in presenting English lesson items which majoring foreign language as medium of instruction and the pupils' language not be used in learning and teaching process.
a.      The Purpose of Direct Method
As a method in forwarding English lesson, Direct Method has some purposes that want to be reached. According to Utari-Nababan explains that: The main purpose of Direct Method is mastering the language target verbally in order students able to communicate in language target. Usage likes properly native speaker. To reach this target, the students given practices for the association of sentences and words with the meaning through demonstration, expression, movement, and also mimics.[2]
While Nana Sudjana tells the purpose of Direct Method as follows: The purpose of this method is give the pupil a hand to clearly understand the way of an activity or process of an object in English lesson, the students' attention is easier concentrated on learning process and didn't concentrated to miscellaneous. By using Direct Method in English learning, it can reduce some mistakes that happened if compared with reading books or theorical things only, after that it repairable through a perception and concrete example by presenting the real object.[3]
So, it can be concluded that the purpose of Direct Method is in order the pupils able to communicate verbally in using foreign Language (English) as the speaker native.
b.      The Characteristics of Direct Method
In its practice, Direct Method has some characteristics for example as follows:
1.      The teaching of class exclusively executed in target language.
2.      Only sentences and daily vocabulary was taught.
3.      Speaking skill is developed step by step and regular with the exchange of question and answer between the student and teacher in intensive and small class.
4.      The grammar is taught inductively.
5.      Instruction items just taught verbally.
6.      Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, pictures or objects, abstract vocabulary is taught by ideas association.
7.      Either understanding speaking or listening to be taught.
8.      The accurate grammar utterance is much watched.[4]
According to Sumardi, the characteristics of Direct Method are:
1.      The lesson items consist of sentence structure and words which many used in everyday.
2.      The grammar is taught through situation and done verbally, not by learning by heart.
3.      The meaning which is concrete to be taught by using objects, while the meaning which is abstract thought through association.
4.      Many listening and imitating practices in order the language mastering can be reached automatically.
5.      Many learning activities are done in class.
6.      Reading is originally given verbally.
7.      Since the beginning the pupils trained to think in foreign language.[5]
While the other linguists mention the especial characteristics of Direct Method shall be as follows:
1.      Learning language shall start with situation "here-and-now" by exploiting class objects and actions or simple deeds. Finally if the students have studied language by adequate, then lesson changing and draw away to real background and situation.
2.      Frequently studying in Direct Method is done around pictures which made peculiarly portray life in state of target language user. These pictures help the teacher to obviate usage of much forbidden translation in class. Vocabulary boundaries just given through paraphrase in target languages, or by imitating action or manipulate the existing object or modified so that the students can understand the meaning.
3.      From the beginning instruction, the students listen to perfect and have meaning sentences in simple dialogue which frequently using exchange forms of question answer.
4.      The right and correct utterance is a consideration of important assessment in this approach, and the emphasis put down at the development of correct utterance from early instruction.
5.      Grammars are not taught detailed; they are expected could be studied by practices and exercises. The students are motivated to make structure sentence generalizing through inductive mode by their self. If the grammar should be taught detailed, so it's must be taught in target language.
6.      Kinds of reading target are also reached through "direct" understanding to reading text without usage of translation or dictionary.[6]
According to Mackey (1965; 151-152) was cited by mansoer, especial characteristics of this method are:
1.      Using the vocabulary and structure which is everyday commonly used.
2.      The structure taught by looking the situation.
3.      Using many new items in same lesson to make language sound naturally which in turn enrich its use in ordinary conversation.
4.      Structure and vocabulary used by oral.
5.      Taught words are directly connected with the object.
6.      Instruction of structure viewed visually.
7.      Extensively listening and imitating is trained to be having automatically skill.
8.      Generally all activities are done in class.
9.      The first several weeks is majored to train utterance.
10.  All reading skills are first of all executed by oral. [7]
Yusuf and Anwar suggest that the characteristics of this method are:
1.      Lesson items in the first of all only given word by word, then sentence structure.
2.      The grammar is taught in passing only, and students are not being claimed to memorizing the grammar formulas, but the important one is the students able to speak language well.
3.      In teaching process always use appliance assist (physic appliance) both of direct physic appliance, indirect (artificial object) and demonstration through selected movement or symbols.
4.      After entering class, students or pupils are really conditioned to accept and speak in foreign language, and prohibited to use other language.[8]
d.      The Excess and Insufficiency of Direct Method
a)      The Excess of Direct Method
Direct method seen from the effectiveness has owning excess for example:
1.      The students motivated to mention and understand the sentence words in foreign language which taught by their teacher, more than anything else the teacher uses physic appliance and kinds of pleasant media.
2.      Because in this method the teacher usually teaches simple sentences and words at first which can be understood and known by student in daily speak, for example pen, pencil, bench, foreign language symbols which taught by his teacher.
3.      This method is most relative using many kind of physic appliances, are video, film, tape and various media/tools was made by own self so the lesson is felt not difficult.
4.      The students get practical and direct experience, even if at the first the sentence was said is not yet understood and comprehended altogether.
5.      Student's tongue become trained and if accepting utterances which initially was often listened and said.[9]
Utari-Nababan tells that:
1.      The students become skillful in listening.
2.      The students know many vocabularies.
3.      The students have pronunciation like or come near the native speaker.
4.      The students get many practices in speaking specially in the matter of the topics which have been trained in class.[10]
According to Mackey was cited by Mansoer states that the excess of Direct Method those are:
1.      The educated didn't have to memorize the written language.
2.      Unverbalize because the teaching is connected to the fact directly.
3.      The educated gets many opportunities to practice languages.
4.      The educated can practice language as according to language function as communication means.[11]
b)     The Insufficiency of Direct Method
The insufficiency of Direct Method for example:
1.      This method has principles that possible can be accepted in private schools which have a few of students, but this matters could not bring on to be applied in public schools which have many students.
2.      This method claims the teachers who have fluency speaking like native speaker.
3.      This method relies on teachers' deftness in presenting items, and not good textbooks.
4.      This method avoids the usage of target language which exactly very pursue in students' progress because many castaway times in explaining a concept in target language. Though the translation in target language only needs just a minute time.
5.      In consequence of what is told in this item is the interpretation of something description in target language (receptive mistake) can be happened. This mistake is difficult to know by teacher compared to productive mistake (which said or written by students) which can detected immediately.
6.      This method piles it on the equation between acquirement of first and second foreign language and not paying attention to the limitation of classroom.
7.      This method didn't have strong base in linguistics theory (for example, the acquirement of first and second foreign language theory).[12]
According to Tayar and Yusuf, the weaknesses of Direct Method for example:
1.      The teaching process can become passively, so the teacher cannot motivate students, even probably students feel bored and saturated because the sentences and the words that said by the teacher never could be understood, because the teacher only using foreign language without translated into pupils' language.
2.      At the beginning level, it seems felt difficult to be applied this method, because the students not yet owned the materials (words exchequer) which have been understood.
3.      Though in this method basically the teacher may not use his language in submitting materials lesson of foreign language, but in fact they are not always consistence, the teacher is forced to translating difficult words of that foreign language into pupils' language for example.[13]
According to Dodson that the weaknesses of Direct Method for example:
1.      Major fallacy of Direct Method was belief that second language should be learned in way which first language was acquired, by total immersion techniques. But obviously for the less time and opportunity in schools, compared wit small child learning his mother tongue.
2.       The Direct Method reject use of the printed word­ – but this objection is illogical since second language learner has already mastered his reading skills.
3.      Later disciples of Direct Method took it too extremes and refused to speak a single word of English in lesson. To avoid translating new words, the searched for an association between word and an idea.
4.       Successful teacher of Direct Method needed competence in his language, stamina, energy, imagination, ability and time to create own materials and courses, beyond capacity of all gifted few.
5.      Also Direct Method failed to grade and structure their materials adequately no selection, grading or controller presentation of vocabulary and structures. Plunged pupils into flood of living language-quite bewildering for pupils.[14]

[1]  Tayar Yusuf dan Syaiful Anwar, Op.cit., p. 186
[2] Sri Utari Subyakto-Nababan, metodologi Pengajaran Bahasa, (Jakarta: PT. Gramedia, 1993), p. 16.
[3] Nana Sudjana, Op.cit., p. 20.
[4] Henry Guntur Tarigan, Metodologi Pengajaran Bahasa I, (Bandung: Angkasa, 1991), p, 112.
[5] Muljanto Sumardi, Op.cit., p. 33.
[6]  Henry Guntur Tarigan, Op.cit., p. 113.
[7]  Mansoer Pateda, Linguistik Terapan, (Yogyakarta: Penerbit Nusa Indak Kanisius, 1991), p. 129
[8]  Tayar Yusuf dan Syaiful Anwar, Op.cit., p. 153
[9]  Tayar Yusuf dan Syaiful Anwar, Ibid., p. 154
[10]  Sri Utari Subyakto – Nababan, Op.cit., p. 17
[11]  Mansoer Pateda, Op.cit., p. 130
[12]  Sri Utari Subyakto – Nababan, Op.cit., p. 17.
[13]  Tayar Yusuf dan Syaiful Anwar, Op.cit., p. 155.
[14]  C.J. Dodson, Language Teaching and the Bilingual Method, Ptman Publishing, 1997


Anonim mengatakan…
thanks mbak infonya sangat membantu ^_^